CRISPR/Cas: aplicaciones y perspectivas para el mejoramiento genético de plantas

Mairenys Concepción-Hernández

Resumen


El desarrollo vertiginoso de la tecnología CRISPR/Cas en los últimos años, desde su descubrimiento como sistema inmune microbiano hasta su evolución como herramienta versátil y potente para la modificación de la función génica, constituye un manifiesto sobre cómo investigaciones básicas de impacto moderado pueden revolucionar las investigaciones biológicas. A partir de su aplicación como plataforma para la edición génica guiada por ARN, el sistema CRISPR/Cas se ha extendido hacia campos tan diversos como la regulación de la expresión génica, edición del epigenoma y visualización in vivo de la cromatina. En este artículo se introduce la tecnología CRISPR/Cas con énfasis en el sistema de tipo II CRISPR/Cas9 y se discuten susprincipales aplicaciones en el mejoramiento genético en plantas. Igualmente, se destacan los avances y limitaciones del uso de la tecnología en plantas, y se delinean las futuras perspectivas en el campo del mejoramiento genético.

Palabras clave:edición de genoma, estrés biótico y abiótico, ingeniería genética, modificación de función génica


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Referencias


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