Fisiología del cultivo in vitro

Maria Jesús Cañal, Roberto Rodríguez, Belén Fernández, Ricardo Sánchez-Tames, Juan Pedro Majada

Resumen


En los procedimientos de cultivo descritos hasta la década de los ochenta, no se hace ninguna referencia al control ambiental en el desarrollo de las plantas in vitro. Sin embargo, las tasas de crecimiento, desarrollo y muchas de las características fisiológicas y morfológicas de las plantas formadas in vitro están influenciadas por el ambiente físico, químico y gaseoso de los recipientes. El incremento de conocimientos acerca del control ambiental del cultivo de tejidos en condiciones estériles, está provocando una evolución de las distintas técnicas empleadas en la micropropagación de plantas. El ambiente in vitro en recipientes con baja tasa de ventilación presenta unas tasas bajas de flujo de materia y energía, con mínimas variaciones de temperatura, elevada humedad relativa y grandes cambios diarios de la concentración de CO2 en el interior de los recipientes. El tipo de recipiente de cultivo (tamaño, forma, material y sistema de cierre) puede condicionar la evolución de la composición gaseosa en su interior durante el período de cultivo. Ante los distintos factores de estrés que tienen que soportar durante las fases de la micropropagación las plantas producidas en recipientes con nulo o escaso intercambio gaseoso, pueden manifestar alteraciones o déficit en cuanto a su estructura anatómica, morfológica y fisiológica. Como consecuencia, estas plantas presentan un fenotipo incapaz de sobrevivir al transplante directo al invernadero o campo. Actualmente se pueden utilizar diferentes métodos para controlar el ambiente en las distintas fases de la micropropagación, ya sean cultivos heterótrofos, mixótrofos o autótrofos. La elección de la mejor estrategia va a depender de varios factores, destacando la especie, el número de transplantes requerido y la relación calidad precio entre otros.

Palabras clave: ambiente in vitro, características fisiológicas, control ambiental, cultivo de tejidos, micropropagación


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Referencias


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